Top 20 amazing facts about human's body
Top 20 amazing facts about human's body

Your left and right lungs aren't exactly the same. The lung on the left side of your body is divided into two lobes while the lung on your right side is divided into three. The left lung is also slightly smaller, allowing room for your heart.

Let’s check out top 20 amazing facts about your body, as human’s body is just as complicated as the system of a computer, and is amazing as such.

The list of top 20 amazing facts about the human body

20. The average person takes 23,000 breaths a day

19. Beards are the fastest growing hairs on the human body

18. The human liver is responsible for more than 500 distinct processes in the body

17. Extraocular muscles in the eye are the body’s fastest muscles

16. On a genetic level, all human beings are more than 99 percent identical

15. Your tongue is made up of eight interwoven muscles

14. Skin is the human body’s largest organ

13. If all the blood vessels in the human body were laid end to end, they would encircle the Earth four times

12. The big toe is one of the most important structural parts of the body

11. During the first month of life, an infant is learning so many new things that the number of connections, called synapses, between brain cells increases from 50 trillion to 1 quadrillion

10. Fingernails and hair are made out of the same substance – keratin

9. The satisfying sound of cracking your knuckles comes from gas bubbles bursting in your joints

8. The human nose can detect about 1 trillion smells

7. You have two kidneys, but only one is necessary to live

6. Wisdom teeth serve no purpose

5. You use an average of 43 muscles in your face when you frown

4. In one hour, your heart produces enough energy to raise a ton of steel 3 feet off the ground

3. Goose bumps evolved to make our ancestors’ hair stand up, making them appear more threatening to predators

2. It’s possible to brush your teeth too aggressively

1. Adult lungs have a surface area of around 70 square metres

20. The average person takes 23,000 breaths a day

Photo: Getty Images
Photo: Getty Images

The average person takes between 17,000 and 23,000 breaths per day, but there is a good chance we don't always breathe the right way. Chalk it up to how we deal with stress.

"When we feel something as a threat, our fight-or-flight response automatically kicks in," says Dr. Katherine Rosa, with the Harvard-affiliated Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine. "Our breathing becomes more rapid and shallow and our hearts beat faster, all of which prepares us to run away from the threat."

Glucose is supplied to the body by the food you eat. When you breathe oxygen in, the cells react with the glucose, allowing your body to use it as energy. When your breathing is compromised, oftentimes its accompanied by sluggishness and fatigue.

Breathing in oxygen is crucial to helping defend your immune system. When you breathe oxygen in, your body creates what’s known as superoxides, helping to fight against bacteria and viruses in the body.

Aside from superoxides, the nasal turbinates play a large role in cleansing the air you breathe. The nasal turbinates are fleshy areas within the nose that facilitate the conduction, filtration and humidification of the air you breathe.

19. Beards are the fastest growing hairs on the human body

Photo: IStock
Photo: IStock

Facial hair growth is largely propelled by testosterone, a hormone. Testosterone levels can vary. For men between 19 and 38, the normal range is 264 to 916 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL). This represents about the 3rd through 98th percentile for testosterone.

Having low testosterone can negatively affect beard growth. For men with clinically low testosterone, taking supplements under a doctor’s supervision may help increase beard growth. If your testosterone is within the normal range, taking supplements will most likely not help.

You can also be genetically predetermined for a scant beard, even if your testosterone is normal. This is largely due to genetic variations, ethnicity, and heredity.

Keep in mind that you inherit genes from both parents. Your dad’s beard may indicate what yours will be like, but so may your maternal grandfather’s.

18. The human liver is responsible for more than 500 distinct processes in the body

Photo: ThoughtCo
Photo: ThoughtCo

The liver is the largest solid organ and the largest gland in the human body. It carries out over 500 essential tasks.

Classed as part of the digestive system, the roles of the liver include detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that help digest food.

Weighing between 3.17 and 3.66 pounds (lb), or between 1.44 and 1.66 kilograms (kg), the liver is reddish-brown with a rubbery texture. It is situated above and to the left of the stomach and below the lungs.

The skin is the only organ heavier and larger than the liver.

The liver is roughly triangular and consists of two lobes: a larger right lobe and a smaller left lobe. The lobes are separated by the falciform ligament, a band of tissue that keeps it anchored to the diaphragm.

A layer of fibrous tissue called Glisson’s capsule covers the outside of the liver. This capsule is further covered by the peritoneum, a membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity.

This helps hold the liver in place and protects it from physical damage.

17. Extraocular muscles in the eye are the body’s fastest muscles

Photo: TeachMeAnatomy
Photo: TeachMeAnatomy

Extraocular muscles are responsible for moving the eye in different directions. These are the muscles that are considered the fastest, though there are other muscles in the eye.

● Intraocular muscles are those that control the expansion and contraction of the iris to allow more light in the pupil, as well as many other things. These reactions are a bit slower than the extraocular muscles, though they still happen impressively fast.

● The reason the eye is considered the fastest in the body is because many of its movements are involuntary. People can flick their eyes to the side and notice an object without consciously deciding to do so. The muscles in the eye are also about 100 times stronger than they need to be to perform their duties.

16. On a genetic level, all human beings are more than 99 percent identical

Photo: Nature
Photo: Nature

Genetics is a term that refers to the study of genes and their roles in inheritance - in other words, the way that certain traits or conditions are passed down from one generation to another. Genetics involves scientific studies of genes and their effects. Genes (units of heredity) carry the instructions for making proteins, which direct the activities of cells and functions of the body. Examples of genetic or inherited disorders include cystic fibrosis (See: Learning About Cystic Fibrosis), Huntington's disease (Learning About Huntington's Disease), and phenylketonuria (PKU) (Learning About Phenylketonuria).

Genomics is a more recent term that describes the study of all of a person's genes (the genome), including interactions of those genes with each other and with the person's environment. Genomics includes the scientific study of complex diseases such as heart disease, asthma, diabetes, and cancer because these diseases are typically caused more by a combination of genetic and environmental factors than by individual genes. Genomics is offering new possibilities for therapies and treatments for some complex diseases, as well as new diagnostic methods.

15. Your tongue is made up of eight interwoven muscles

Photo: Complete Anatomy
Photo: Complete Anatomy

Typically a human tongue is around 3.3 inches (8.5 centimeters) for men and 3.1 inches (7.9 cm) for women, according to the University of Edinburgh. The world’s longest tongue is 3.97 inches (10.1 cm) long, from the tip to the middle of the closed top lip, and belongs to Nick Stoeberl of Salinas, California, according to Guinness Book of World Records. The longest tongue for a woman is 3.8 inches (9.75 cm), belonging to Chanel Tapper of Los Angeles.

The tongue consists of eight interwoven, striated muscles that can move in any direction, making it quite flexible. Throughout the muscles are glands and fat, while the outside is covered by a mucus membrane. The top of the tongue, also called the dorsum, is covered with papillae, tiny nodes that contain the taste buds and the serous glands.

The serous glands secrete some of the fluid found in saliva, while the taste buds taste food through receptors that send information to the brain. Receptors are nerve endings that have a chemical reaction to the food that is being eaten. There are different reactors for different types of flavors, and there are around 50 to 150 taste receptor cells inside each taste bud, according to Encyclopedia Britannica.

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14. Skin is the human body’s largest organ

Photo: Getty Images
Photo: Getty Images

Skin is our largest organ—adults carry some 8 pounds (3.6 kilograms) and 22 square feet (2 square meters) of it. This fleshy covering does a lot more than make us look presentable. In fact, without it, we'd literally evaporate.

Skin acts as a waterproof, insulating shield, guarding the body against extremes of temperature, damaging sunlight, and harmful chemicals. It also exudes antibacterial substances that prevent infection and manufactures vitamin D for converting calcium into healthy bones. Skin additionally is a huge sensor packed with nerves for keeping the brain in touch with the outside world. At the same time, skin allows us free movement, proving itself an amazingly versatile organ.

13. If all the blood vessels in the human body were laid end to end, they would encircle the Earth four times

Photo: The Franklin Institute
Photo: The Franklin Institute

Three types of blood vessels make up the human circulatory system: arteries, veins, and capillaries. All three of these vessels transport blood, oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to organs and cells. While arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the tissues of the body, veins carry oxygen-depleted blood from the tissues back to the heart, and in fact have special valves that help them to achieve this directional flow. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect arteries to veins and allow nutrients in the blood to diffuse to the body's tissues.

All the arteries, veins, and capillaries of a human child, stretched end to end, are estimated to wrap around the Earth about 2.5 times (the equivalent of about 60,000 miles). The amount of blood vessels in a human adult would circle our planet four times, equaling 100,000 miles, according to Eidson.

12. The big toe is one of the most important structural parts of the body

Photo: HyProCure
Photo: HyProCure

Each foot is made up of 26 bones, 30 joints and more than 100 muscles, tendons and ligaments, all of which work together to provide support, balance and mobility.

Joints in the feet are formed wherever two or more of these bones meet. Except for the big toe, each of the toes has three joints, which include:

• Metatarsophalangeal joint (MCP) – the joint at the base of the toe

• Proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) – the joint in the middle of the toe

• Distal phalangeal joint (DP) – the joint closest to the tip of the toe.

Each big toe has two joints:

• Metatarsophalangeal joint

• Interphalangeal joint

The surfaces of the bones where they meet to form joints are covered with a layer of cartilage, which allows them to glide smoothly against one another as they move. The joints are enclosed by a fibrous capsule that is lined with a thin membrane called the synovium, which secretes a fluid to lubricate the joints.

11. During the first month of life, an infant is learning so many new things that the number of connections, called synapses, between brain cells increases from 50 trillion to 1 quadrillion

Photo: Getty Images
Photo: Getty Images

At birth, a baby’s brain contains 100 billion neurons, roughly as many nerve cells as there are stars in the Milky Way, and almost all the neurons the brain will ever have. The brain starts forming prenatally, about three weeks after conception. Before birth, the brain produces trillions more neurons and “synapses” (connections between the brain cells) than it needs. During the first years of life, the brain undergoes a series of extraordinary changes.

In the brain, the neurons are there at birth, as well as some synapses. As the neurons mature, more and more synapses are made. At birth, the number of synapses per neuron is 2,500, but by age two or three, it’s about 15,000 per neuron. The brain eliminates connections that are seldom or never used, which is a normal part of brain development.

“Windows of opportunity” are sensitive periods in children’s lives when specific types of learning take place. For instance, scientists have determined that the neurons for vision begin sending messages back and forth rapidly at 2 to 4 months of age, peaking in intensity at 8 months. It is no coincidence that babies begin to take notice of the world during this period.

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10. Fingernails and hair are made out of the same substance – keratin

Photo: Wiley Online Library
Photo: Wiley Online Library

Fingernails are made from a tough protein called keratin. (Primates aren’t the only animals that have found a use for keratin; hooves, horns and claws are also made from this substance.)

Keratin gives hair and the outer layer of skin its strength. The reason fingernails are tougher than hair and skin is because the keratin fibers that make up nails are more dense (packed together). Keratin also repels water. That’s why you don’t swell up like a sponge when you go swimming or take a bath!

9. The satisfying sound of cracking your knuckles comes from gas bubbles bursting in your joints

Photo: Wikipedia
Photo: Wikipedia

Dr. Robert Klapper, orthopaedic surgeon and co-director of the Joint Replacement Program, to explain what actually happens when you hear your joints snap, crack, and pop.

"The noise of cracking or popping in our joints is actually nitrogen bubbles bursting in our synovial fluid," says Dr. Klapper.

According to Dr. Klapper, synovial fluid lubricates your joints like motor oil in a car's engine, reducing friction and preserving our cartilage. The nitrogen bubbles within the synovial fluid usually take 20 minutes to re-form in your joints before they can crack again.

Part of the appeal of knuckle cracking could be that 20-minute lull, when gas bubbles are re-forming in the synovial fluid. You might feel looser during that period, as if you’ve relieved pressure from your joints.

But the satisfaction is mostly in your head.

"Feeling good after cracking your knuckles is a psychological experience," says Dr. Klapper.

8. The human nose can detect about 1 trillion smells

Photo: Wikiwand
Photo: Wikiwand

Sight and hearing are easy to measure. Color, for example, is determined by the wavelength of light, while sound is made up of specific noise frequencies.

But smell isn’t just about being able to detect energy—smell is influenced by millions of different chemicals, each of which activates receptors in the nose differently. For example, the unique smell of a rose is formed by a combination of 275 different chemicals.

Andreas Keller, a research associate in The Rockefeller University‘s Smell Study, and his team knew that measuring every known odor-producing chemical would be impossible, so they selected 128 compounds in an attempt to establish the lower limit of the human olfactory system’s capabilities.

“There are probably several millions or billions of different odorous molecules … many more than the 128 we used. It’s not known, and an active field of research, how they combine,” said Keller.

7. You have two kidneys, but only one is necessary to live

Photo: iStock
Photo: iStock

Your kidneys filter out waste and extra fluid from your blood so it can be excreted from your body in your urine.

One kidney can filter enough blood to keep your body functioning normally. This is why you can survive and be healthy with only one kidney.

The recommendations for healthy living if you have only one kidney are basically the same for people with two kidneys. They include:

• eating a healthy diet

• exercising regularly

• maintaining a healthy weight

• staying hydrated

• maintaining a normal blood pressure and blood sugar (managing high blood pressure or diabetes if they develop)

• seeing your doctor regularly for checkups

In addition, if you have a solitary kidney, you should be extra careful about keeping it functioning well. This includes:

• protecting it from injury

• avoiding medications that can be harmful, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

Reasons for having one kidney

There are a number of reasons you may have just one kidney. These include the following:

You were born with only one kidney.

One of your kidneys was removed (nephrectomy) to treat a medical condition or injury.

You’ve had a kidney transplant.

You donated a kidney to someone who needed a transplant.

You can also have two kidneys but only one that functions, which is the same as having a single kidney.

One big difference in outcomes of having one kidney relates to whether you were born with just one kidney versus having lost or donated one.

For those born with one kidney, the solitary kidney does the job of both kidneys from day one, often growing into a larger and better functioning kidney.

When one kidney is removed or donated, the other kidney does not compensate, and therefore the overall kidney function is decreased by half.

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6. Wisdom teeth serve no purpose

Photo: Adobestock
Photo: Adobestock

Anthropologists believe humans have evolved beyond needing wisdom teeth, so some people may never get any. Wisdom teeth may go the way of the appendix and become completely unnecessary. It wouldn’t be surprising to some researchers if someday nobody had wisdom teeth anymore.

Still, genetics do cause most adults to develop their wisdom teeth. One studyTrusted Source found that at least 53 percent of people had at least one wisdom tooth come in. Men were more likely to have them than women.

However, just because you don’t see all of your wisdom teeth doesn’t mean they aren’t there. Sometimes wisdom teeth don’t ever erupt and won’t ever become visible. An X-ray can confirm if you have wisdom teeth under your gums.

Whether visible or not, wisdom teeth can cause oral health problems. Wisdom teeth that haven’t erupted through the gums are called impacted. Sometimes this causes even more problems than visible wisdom teeth.

5. You use an average of 43 muscles in your face when you frown

Photo: Daily Mail
Photo: Daily Mail

When we make facial expressions, we're essentially transmitting a packet of information that can be received, read and interpreted by others. By contracting or expanding our facial muscles in different degrees and combinations, we can produce thousands of different messages that provide cues to our overall emotional state, our short-term feelings about our immediate environment, our mental well-being, our personality and mood, our physical health, our creditability and whether or not we view others as being creditable.

The smile -- transmitted either consciously or subconsciously -- is viewed across cultures as a sign of friendliness, especially when greeting someone. Frowns, too, are generally recognized as indicating sadness or disapproval.

There are 43 muscles in the face, most of which are controlled by the seventh cranial nerve (also known as the facial nerve). This nerve exits the cerebral cortex and emerges from your skull just in front of your ears. It then splits into five primary branches: temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular and cervical. These branches reach different areas of the face and enervate muscles that allow the face to twist and contort into a variety of expressions.

However, nobody has really come up with a definitive number for how many muscles it takes to smile or frown -- one person's smile is another person's smirk. Also, not everyone has the same number of facial muscles; some have more, enabling a wider range of expression, while some people actually have 40 percent fewer.

4. In one hour, your heart produces enough energy to raise a ton of steel 3 feet off the ground

Photo: Pixabay
Photo: Pixabay

In one hour, your heart produces enough energy to raise a ton of steel 3 feet off the ground.

You use an average of 43 muscles in your face when you frown. It only takes 17 muscles to smile.

Red blood cells are frequent fliers. After being created inside the bones, the cells make approximately 250,000 round trips -- at 60,000 miles each trip-- through the body before returning to the bone marrow to die 120 days later.

The adult human body comprises 206 bones, and more than half are accounted for in the hands and feet.

The heart will beat an average of 3 billion times during an average person's lifetime.

3. Goose bumps evolved to make our ancestors’ hair stand up, making them appear more threatening to predators

Photo: Getty Images
Photo: Getty Images

Goosebumps are a physiological phenomenon inherited from our animal ancestors, which was useful to them but are not of much help to us. Goosebumps are tiny elevations of the skin that resemble the skin of poultry after the feathers have been plucked. (Therefore we could as well call them "turkeybumps" or "duckbumps.") These bumps are caused by a contraction of miniature muscles that are attached to each hair. Each contracting muscle creates a shallow depression on the skin surface, which causes the surrounding area to protrude. The contraction also causes the hair to stand up whenever the body feels cold. In animals with a thick hair coat this rising of hair expands the layer of air that serves as insulation. The thicker the hair layer, the more heat is retained. In people this reaction is useless because we do not have a hair coat, but goosebumps persist nevertheless.

2. It’s possible to brush your teeth too aggressively

Photo: Getty Images
Photo: Getty Images

Over-brushing your teeth not only refers to "how much" you brush your teeth but also "how" you brush them. Compulsive or over-vigorous brushing can lead to oral health problems and put your mouth at risk for dental abrasion, tooth sensitivity, and gum recession.

Dental abrasion refers to the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces from a foreign object, according to the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC. In this case, the enthusiastic use of your toothbrush wears away at the tooth enamel and, eventually, the softer dentin and cementum structures. You can identify abrasion as worn, shiny, and often yellow or brown spots on the tooth near the gumline. Notching — a wedge or V-shaped indention of the tooth along the gumline — is also a sign of abrasion.

When toothbrush abrasion wears away the tooth enamel, the dentin layer's nerve endings either become exposed or close enough to the surface to lead to tooth sensitivity. This sensitivity may cause you to feel discomfort or pain when your teeth are exposed to hot, cold, sweet, or sour stimuli or when you brush your teeth.

Continued overzealous and improper brushing may also cause your gums to recede. When this happens, the softer cementum of the root is exposed and vulnerable. Not only is exposed cementum easily worn away and notched, leading to sensitivity and pain, but it's also more at risk for decay.

1. Adult lungs have a surface area of around 70 square metres

Photo: Live Science
Photo: Live Science

Alveoli are tiny balloon shaped structures and are the smallest passageway in the respiratory system. The alveoli are very thin, allowing the relatively easy passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the alveoli and blood vessels called capillaries.

One cubic millimeter of lung tissue contains around 170 alveoli. While the total number can vary from one person to the next, there are literally millions within the human lungs spanning a surface area of roughly 70 square meters.

Alveoli are the endpoint of the respiratory system which starts when we inhale air into the mouth or nose. The oxygen-rich air travels down the trachea and then into one of the two lungs via the right or left bronchus. From there, the air is directed through smaller and smaller passages, called bronchioles, past the alveolar duct, until it finally enters an individual alveolus.

Alveoli are lined by a fluid layer known as a surfactant which maintains the shape and surface tension of the air sac. By maintaining surface tension, there is more surface area through which oxygen and CO2 molecules can pass.

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