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Oldest Countries In Human History
Egypt - The Oldest Countries In Human History

What is a Country or Nation?

Definitions of "country," "state," and "nation" vary and are often vague. While the idea of a country is universal, the idea of a sovereign state is not. The political administrative entity of a country may already be a federal state or another type of state, depending on the definition.

In this use, "country" refers to a geographically defined territory ruled by a central authority that exercises at least some discretionary authority over the governed population.

This government need not be apolitical or immune to outside pressure. A federal state is an independent nation with its own set of boundaries, government, and taxes, but it nevertheless answers to a higher authority. Even "sovereign" governments frequently rely on the economic and political support of other nations.

Nations belonging to the United Nations are the ones who officially recognize a region as an independent state. It's important to note that they do not independently recognize or reject a state. Each participating nation is free to make its own choice in the matter.

Consequently, the question of how to designate these areas irrespective of political interests or interests under international law must be resolved before the concept of countries can even be discussed.

The term "nation" is used to refer to a territory, its government, and the people who live there, all of whom are sovereign under international law. Those who embrace the foundational culture and history of the country share the same legal, economic, cultural, religious, linguistic, and written obligations as those who reject it. control of the government, and they work together to create a shared future in the region they control.

State sovereignty is the primary focus of international law. The current count of nations is somewhere around 195. Definitions of "state status" and "state execution" are common categories used when talking about what constitutes a nation. The Convention on the Rights and Obligations of States, signed in 1933, is often cited as the starting point for any discussion of what constitutes a country (referred to as the Montevideo Convention). This Convention is a regional convention among 16 nations in the Americas, rather than a global multilateral agreement. The 1933 Montevideo Convention is the only international legal agreement that offers a national definition, notwithstanding its restricted universality.

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Which Ancient Country Has the Earliest State in the World?

Humans appeared on Earth about 200,000 years ago and went through many stages: tribes, primitive communes, city-states... until the formation of nations about 5,000 years ago.

According to the book "The History of World Civilization", Egypt is the oldest country in the world. The state in Egypt has been around since about 5,000 BC. After Egypt, new states gradually formed in Mesopotamia, India, and China.

Egypt is one of the countries with a rather special position in the world. Its territory stretches across 2 different continents (Africa and Asia). Most of Egypt's territory is in North Africa, but its northeastern part is in the Middle East (West Asia).

There's a difference between the oldest countries and the oldest civilizations. Many of the oldest civilizations such as Egypt, Iraq, Persia, Greece, China, and India were neither united nor independent for large portions of their history.

Join to discover the Top 15 earliest ancient countries in human history.

1.Ancient Egypt

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Legacy left from ancient Egypt

Topping the Top 15 ancient countries that appeared the earliest in human history is ancient Egypt. Ancient Egypt was officially unified from Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt with the ascension of the first Pharaoh around 3100 BC. The first pharaoh was named Narmer, commonly known as Menes.

The territory of ancient Egypt included a large area of Northeast Africa from the Nile basin to the Mediterranean. It was the fertile plains of the Nile River that created favorable conditions for people to focus on developing agriculture, thereby creating a new step in the development of human society.

Ancient Egyptian history includes major periods: Early Dynasty (3100-2686 BC), Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BC), First Intermediate (2181-2055 BC), Middle Kingdom (2055- 1650 BC), Second Intermediate (1650-1550 BC), New Kingdom (1550-1069 BC), Third Intermediate (1069-664 BC) and Late (664-332 BC). In it, ancient Egypt reached the peak of power, strength, and culture in the New Kingdom period, during the Ramsside period (English: Ramsey) (1186-1077 BC).

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Ancient Egyptian Society

Ancient Egypt had many great civilizational achievements that are still preserved today. These are architectural works such as Pyramids, Sphinx, temples; the world's first primitive system of mathematics, early medicine, mummification, papermaking, and glassmaking. In particular, the most famous is the Giza Pyramid of Pharaoh Khufu - recognized by UNESCO as the 7 wonders of the ancient world.

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2.Ancient India

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Ancient Indian Society

Scientists have found that the "cradle of Asia" is ancient India in the Indus basin around 3,000 BC.

According to the study, prehistoric humans appeared in India from about 200,000 to 500,000 years ago and modern humans settled in India at the end of the Ice Age, i.e. 12,000 years ago. The civilization of ancient India developed into a nation state around 3,000 BC. This civilization was distinguished by the construction of terracotta cities, sewers and multi-storey buildings.

Ancient Indian history experienced many events and overlapping stages, including an important historical milestone when the Aryans came down from the north, built the Vedic period in India. ancient. The pinnacle of this culture is the Vedas - the oldest surviving written text, written in 1,500 BC. Around 625 BC, a great Indian was born, that is Siddhartha Gautama, also known as Buddha, is Buddha Shakyamuni - the founder of Buddhism.

It can be said that ancient India had an extremely rich and strong religious culture, which has a profound influence until now, especially Buddhism is the most popular religion from South Asia to Asia.

3.Crete Island

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Remains of the Ancient Civilizations of Crete

Crete is considered the cradle of ancient Greece, the first land of advanced Western civilization and the largest and most populous island of Greece.

The civilization in Crete appeared very early before spreading to all of ancient Greece with a brilliant development under the Minos civilization (about 2,700 BC).

They are famous for being pioneers and developing brilliantly in the maritime field because of their favorable location, located at the intersection of trade routes.

Due to being so primitive and poorly recorded in later history, the history of Crete became the stories of Greek mythology, that is, the stories of Kings Minos, Theseus, Minotaur told by Homer - the greatest troubadour of ancient Greece (circa 8th century BC). Later, Crete became part of Ancient Greece.

4.Akkadian Empire

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Legacy from the Akkadian Empire

The Akkadian Empire was the first Semitic-speaking ancient nation, later mentioned in the Bible.

In the 3rd millennium BC, the Sumerians and Akkadians were intercultural and the Akkadian culture gradually replaced the Sumerian culture. The Akkadian Empire appeared from about 2334 BC and lasted until about 2154 BC.

The Akkadian Empire was located in Mesopotamia, the capital of the Akkadian Empire in the two countries of Syria and Iraq, and the neighboring lands that the Akkadian Empire conquered extended as far as Bahrain, Oman and part of modern-day Arabia. now on.

The Akkadian Empire ended the city-state in Mesopotamia to usher in the first nation-state in one of these cradles of mankind.

The Akkadian Empire began with the conquest of King Sargon, and ended with King Shu-turul.

The Akkadian Empire was also the forerunner of other famous ancient empires, Assyria and later Babylon.

5.Xia Dynasty - China

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
The first Chinese dynasty was the Xia dynasty

Records and the very existence of the Xia Dynasty (2070-1600 BC), China's earliest dynasty, are both up for debate. While many Chinese believe their ancestors came from all over the world, the majority trace their roots back to the Beijing–Tianjin–Yellow River region in eastern China.

It is believed that this dominion lasted for 400 years before being overrun by the Shang Dynasty in the year 1600. Historical documents or stories dating back two thousand years or more paint a picture of the ancient culture.

It is believed that the Xia Kingdom flourished between the years 2070 and 1600 B.C., and archaeologists have uncovered evidence of many civilizations in the Yellow River Basin during this time. Archaeologists have shown that the Han people and their civilization appeared in the area about the year 4000. Scholars have been trying to read archeological finds for hints about their beginnings ever since they were discovered, but the exact facts of their origins remain buried in the mythology of history.

While archaeologists have a good idea of the broad area the Han emerged from, historians disagree on the precise location and dates of the rise of the Han civilisation along the Yellow River's middle and lower reaches. In example, archaeological evidence for the origins of the Han is murky. Even while archaeologists have found artifacts dating back more than 3,500 years to the river basin area, they have not yet determined which group of people were the progenitors of the Han.

The middle Yellow River Valley was home to the Jiahu people (7000-6600 B.C.) and the Yangshao people (5000-3000 B.C.). The Qingliangang people (5400-4000 BC) settled along the shore in the lower sections of the river basin. Although they may have been the progenitors of the Han people, it is unclear who they were because no written traces of them have been discovered.

In the intermediate reaches, people of the Longshan culture flourished from 3000 to 2000, whereas in the lower reaches, people of the Dawenkou culture (4300 to 2500) existed at the same time but with quite different values. However, it is unclear if these people were the forefathers of the Han or not because no written documents have been discovered among their remains and artifacts.

6.Assyrian Empire

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Legacy from the Assyrian Empire

Referring to the Top 15 ancient countries that appeared the earliest in human history, the Assyrian Empire is indispensable - one of the very powerful forces in ancient times.

The Assyrian Empire inherited a large area of Mesopotamia when the Akkadian Empire fell. Under the Akkadian Empire, Assyria was a small neighboring vassal. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, Assyria gradually grew, competing with other powers and becoming the Assyrian Empire from about 2,000 BC. The center of the Assyrian Empire was at the headwaters of the Tigris River, in northern Mesopotamia, in what is now northern Iraq.

The fall of the Akkadian Empire caused many powers to rise up to compete with each other, including the Assyrian Empire, the Hittite Empire and ancient Babylon.

Since the 19th century BC, the Assyrian Empire has expanded in size, rivaling the Hittite Empire to the north and ancient Babylon to the south. The period of prosperity of the Assyrian Empire under King Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1791 BC) ended in 1756 BC when the Assyrian Empire was conquered and dominated by ancient Babylon, before the Assyrian Empire's revival. returned and returned to conquer and rule Babylon (911-609 BC). This was the period of greatest prosperity for the Assyrian Empire as it expanded throughout Mesopotamia, spreading to Asia Minor and the Mediterranean.

However, it was the vast territory with many colonies that caused the Assyrian Empire to collapse, when it became uncontrollable and defeated by the colonies, including Babylon, Scythia, Persia, and Yugoslavia.

7.Ancient Babylon

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
The Legacy of the Hanging Gardens of Ancient Babylon

According to the Chronicle, Babylon was originally a stronghold during the Akkadian Empire.

After the dissolution of the Akkadian Empire, the lands of the Akkadian Empire gradually became other ancient nations, including ancient Babylon, the Assyrian Empire, and the Hittite Empire.

The first dynasty of ancient Babylon dates back to 1894 BC, when the Assyrian Empire turned to invade Asia Minor, and ancient Babylon emerged for independence. Ancient Babylon was located in present-day Arabia, about 85 kilometers from the Iraqi capital Baghdad.

Ancient Babylon was the largest city in the world in the period 1770-1670 BC, the first city with a population of over 200,000 with the famous Hanging Gardens of Babylon listed by UNESCO as one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World.

Ancient Babylon had two periods of power: the first period (1770-1670 BC) was when ancient Babylon conquered both the Assyrian Empire and the second, after a period of reverse conquest by the Assyrian Empire. In contrast, ancient Babylon had a renaissance in the period 612-550 BC, also known as the Neo-Babylonian period.

During the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II of New Babylon, ancient Babylon, immensely powerful, invaded as far as Jerusalem, bringing many Jews as slaves. In 539 BC, ancient Babylon was invaded by the founder of the Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great, and since then, ancient Babylon has completely fallen.

8.Hittite Empire

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Hattusa, the capital of the Hittite Empire

One of the three empires that divided Mesopotamia after the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the Hittite Empire. The Hittite Empire began to form around 1600 BC, in the region of North Mesopotamia that is now part of Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon.

The height of the Hittite Empire was around the 14th century BC, when the Hittite Empire waged many wars with Egypt and the Assyrian Empire for control of the Near East. Not having lasted as long as ancient Babylon and the Assyrian Empire, the Hittite Empire fell in 1,178 BC, when it was disintegrated into several independent cities, before being completely taken over by the Assyrian Empire afterwards.

9.Ancient Carthage

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Ancient Carthage

Ancient Carthage was founded around 814 BC, also known as the Carthaginian Kingdom.

Ancient Carthage had territories along the northern coast of Africa, extending into the area of France and Spain that would later become part of the Roman Empire. At the time, ancient Carthage was a country that faced off against ancient Greece and the later Roman Empire.

Ancient Carthage fought tenaciously with the Roman Empire, setting off three Punic Wars (the Romans called the Carthaginians Punic because they were descendants of the Phoenicians).

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Remains of Ancient Carthage

At the end of the Third War, after more than a hundred years and the deaths of hundreds of thousands of soldiers on both sides, the Roman Empire conquered ancient Carthage and razed the city. Ancient Carthage ended in 146 BC.

10.Ancient Greek

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Famous historical site left from ancient Greece

Originating from the island of Crete, ancient European civilization began to spread to the Mediterranean region and flourished, creating Ancient Greece.

Ancient Greece is also one of the most representative civilizations. Top 15 ancient countries appeared earliest in human history.

From about 1200 BC, there were city-states, but through the dark ages, it was not until about 800 that Ancient Greece flourished. Athens holds a key position and is considered the capital of ancient Greece. Another city that is as famous as Athens is Sparta - the city of warriors.

Ancient Greek civilization developed brilliantly with many architectural works and sculptures; was the home of the Olympic Games which today have become the largest Olympics in the world. Referring to ancient Greece, one cannot fail to mention Greek Mythology, which includes folk tales about ancient Greek gods, kings, and heroes, handed down by folk and troubadours. Homer.

Homer's two most representative works, the Iliad and the Odyssey, tell about the journey to attack Troy by the ancient Greek army led by King Agamemnon and the journey back to the homeland of the hero Ulysses after many years. years of war in Troy. These two works have become classics and are among the pioneering works of world literature.

Ancient Greece is also famous as the cradle of Western philosophy and mathematics, with many philosophers and mathematicians such as Euclid, Archimedes, Thales, Socrates, Plato, Aristoteles... They were all mathematicians. or famous ancient philosopher, considered the ancestor in the field of mathematics and philosophy.

Ancient Greece was the most powerful country in the Mediterranean region at that time. The colony of ancient Greece stretched from the South of the Black Sea, covering Central Europe, as far as Eastern Europe and bordering Asia Minor. However, ancient Greece also had to confront other powerful forces at the time, such as the invasion of the Persian Empire led by the emperor Xerxes.

Under the support of Sparta led by Leonidas I, Athens was able to retreat before being attacked by the Persian Empire, and then Ancient Greece had a spectacular counterattack, defeating the Persian Empire. both on the island and on the mainland to regain lost lands.

Ancient Greece fell at the hands of Alexander the Great - the head of the Macedonian Empire. Alexander the Great was one of the greatest military men in history, who turned the Macedonian Empire into a formidable force by taking over both ancient Greece and the Persian and Egyptian Empires. Later, Ancient Greece became part of the Roman Empire as the Roman Empire became the number one power in Europe.

11.Macedonian Empire

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Remains from the Macedonian Empire

Initially, Macedonia was just a small land colonized by ancient Greece. Greek immigrants arrived here and competed for land with the native Macedonians. After that, Macedonia became a city-state and gradually became an independent state, located in the North of Ancient Greece.

The Macedonian Empire was officially established in the 7th century BC, but it was not until the reign of King Phillip II that the Macedonian Empire became a powerful force. The Macedonian Empire gradually took over many of the city-states of ancient Greece, and Philip II also attempted to annex ancient Greece, but he was assassinated before it could be done.

The power of the Macedonian Empire was left to Alexander the Great. After capturing ancient Greece, Alexander the Great continued to attack the countries of Asia Minor, thereby annexing the Persian Empire, as well as the southern region, Egypt. Most of the major countries at that time in Europe and Africa had submitted to the Macedonian Empire.

However, after the death of Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Empire fell into turmoil, protracted civil war. At the same time, the Roman Empire began to grow into a new power, and the Macedonian Empire was eventually defeated by the Roman Empire in 168 BC, before being officially turned into a Roman province in 149 BC, marking the end of a mighty empire.

12.Roman Empire

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Remains from ancient Roman times

The Roman Empire began on the Italian peninsula in 753 BC. In Roman lore, the first king of the Ancient Roman Empire was Romulus - for whom Rome was named. The ancient period experienced 7 kings and the last king of Tarquin was deposed in 510 to enter the republic phase, opening a new era of the Roman Empire.

Under the republic, the principle of separation of powers in the republican system began to appear, the Senate held the power to decide everything and the head was two consuls with equal power. This is an advanced political institution to limit authoritarian power, which is one of the foundations for contemporary modern politics.

Under the republic, the Roman Empire expanded its territory, defeating Carthage, Macedonia, Greece and the barbarians in the north in the area of present England, France, and Germany. One of the most famous leaders of the Roman Empire was Julius Caesar, then one of the two consuls, along with Pompey Magnus. Together with another force, Marcus Crassus, those three form the First Triumvirate.

The death of Crassus brought down the Triumvirate, Julius Caesar defeated Pompey Magnus to become the supreme ruler of the Roman Empire. Later, Julius Caesar named himself "Dictator for Life", which was the basis for the fall of the republic.

Shortly after, Julius Caesar was assassinated in the Senate. The forces of the Roman Empire split and three new characters emerged: Caesar Augustus - the adopted son and appointed heir of Julius Caesar, Mark Antonius - the supreme general, right hand man of Julius Caesar and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus - a Roman nobleman. These three people formed the 2nd Tam Hung Alliance.

After Aemillus Lepidus was defeated, Julius Caesar took over Rome, forcing Mark Antony down into Egypt. Marcus Antonius married Queen Cleopatra and fended off attacks from Rome but ultimately failed. The Roman Empire annexed both Egypt and Caesar Augustus became the first emperor of the Roman Empire, from which the republic fell.

Caesar Augustus's fundamental constitutional changes made the Roman Empire an imperial state, however much of the colony had been colonized by the Roman Empire since republican times. During the imperial period, the Roman Empire controlled an area covering all of Europe: from Western Europe with northern countries such as England, France, Germany; Spain, Portugal; the Mediterranean region includes Italy, Greece; as far as North Africa including Egypt and Asia Minor extending to Jerusalem, which is present-day Israel and Palestine.

The Roman Empire was a great civilization, with many famous structures such as the Colosseum of Rome. The Roman Empire also contributed to mankind an advanced political and legal system that was the basis of Western politics, as well as many important contributions to military science. The literature and mythology of the Roman Empire was inherited from Greece but used Latin letters, and the Latin letters are the basis of the modern language, used by many countries around the world, in including Vietnam. Regarding religion, during the Roman Empire, a figure born in Jerusalem went everywhere to preach, that is Jesus Christ, and from there Christianity was born. Today, Christianity, along with Islam and Buddhism, is one of the three largest religions in the world.

The Roman Empire collapsed due to uncontrolled colonies, to displease the people, especially the Barbarian uprising and the Viking attack in the Northern region, but the birth of Heaven Christianity was also part of the fall of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was split into Eastern and Western Roman Empires in 285, before their colonies were divided into many countries such as England, France, Prussia... and the Holy War with the Kings. Islam in the Middle East broke out, ushering in the dark medieval era in Europe.

It can be said that the Roman Empire is the most powerful empire in the Top 15 ancient countries that appeared the earliest in human history.

13.Persian Empire

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Remains from the Persian Empire

The Persian Empire was one of the most powerful powers in ancient West Asia. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC and the Persian Empire quickly conquered ancient Babylon. Since then, the kings of the Persian Empire called themselves "Kings of Kings". The Persian Empire was the first Asian empire to ever conquer Europe, during the reign of Darius I. During the reign of Xerxes I, the Persian Empire waged war on ancient Greece and attacked the city. Athens, but then had to retreat because of a counterattack by the ancient Greeks. The distinguishing feature of the mighty Persian Empire's army was that they used a lot of elephants in battle, giving their army destructive power.

In its heyday, the Persian Empire was the most powerful, even larger in area than ancient Greece. The Persian Empire was the first empire to unify and master the entire Middle East and West Asia, and unify the entire region into an organized state. The Persian Empire built many magnificent cities, with a devout Middle Eastern culture. The culture of the Persian Empire influenced the entire Middle East, West Asia, North Africa, India, and even China.

The Persian Empire fell in 330 BC under Darius III when he was defeated by Alexander the Great. From there, the Persian Empire became part of the Macedonian Empire, before gaining independence and establishing Parthia when the Roman Empire defeated Macedonia. From there, Parthia and the Sassanid Empire (also known as the Neo-Persian Empire) later became a power in the Middle East, confronting the Roman Empire. Even under the Neo-Persian Empire, the Roman Empire was treated as equal and the Roman Emperor referred to the Emperor of New Persia as "Brother". The New Persian Empire collapsed in 651, when it was attacked and overthrown by Muslim armies. The country next to the current Persian Empire was Iran.

14.Ancient Korea

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Paintings of people in Ancient Joseon

Gojoseon is an ancient country located on the peninsula of East Asia, including the area of the two present South Koreas and North Koreas.

According to legend, Gojoseon was founded in 2333 BC but historians think that these were just tribes and the state of Gojoseon was founded around the 4th century BC when Gojoseon claimed to be the a dynasty and declared war on the Zhou dynasty - China. Ancient Joseon was deeply influenced by Chinese culture and was also attacked and colonized by China many times.

Ancient Joseon went through many different stages, with many dynasties and neighboring countries, the most famous being Goguryeo. Until later it was invaded by Japan. and when liberated, the Korean peninsula was divided into two countries, North Korea and South Korea as it is today. Along with China, Gojoseon is one of the earliest countries in East Asia.

15.Aksumite Kingdom

Top 15 Oldest Countries In Human History
Aksumite Kingdom

And ranked last in the Top 15 ancient countries that appeared the earliest in human history is the Aksumite Kingdom. The Aksumite Kingdom was an ancient kingdom in North Africa, present-day Ethiopia.

The Aksumite Kingdom existed from 100 BC to 940. Due to its remote location and strong influence in North Africa at that time, the Aksumite Kingdom was not attacked by the Roman Empire and was one of the most important countries. established close diplomacy with the Roman Empire.

The Kingdom of Aksumite was the intermediary of trade and commerce between the Roman Empire and South and East Asian countries such as India and China.

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