How Many Countries Are There In The Middle East Today: List, Population, Facts and Figure?
|The Middle East Map. Photo: Pinterest|
Running all the way from the coasts of Israel to the deep deserts of Saudi Arabia, the Middle East is full of exciting landscapes and modern cities. The phenomenal heritages all running from the ancient times and each country’s culture are all to be witnessed in this region.
Middle East: Quick Facts
*Middle East includes 18 countries. These are Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
*Sometimes, the definition of Middle East is extended to include the concept of the "Greater Middle East" that includes Afghanistan, the Comoros, Djibouti, Maghreb, Pakistan, Sudan, and Somalia.
*Middle East includes countries that share common factors like ethnic groups, geographic features, religious beliefs, and political history.
Why Is It Called The Middle East?
The term "Middle East" originated from the same European perspective that described Eastern Asia as "the Far East." The Middle East denotes the transcontinental area between Western Asia and Egypt. It is comprised of 17 nations and an estimated population of 371 million. Some of the area's largest cities include Riyadh, Cairo, and Istanbul.
Background Middle East
The origin of the term "Middle East" is considered to be in the British India Office during the 1850s. It was popularized by Alfred Thayer Mahan, an American naval strategist who was referring to the region between Arabia and India in 1902. Mahan’s definition of the Middle East was the area around the Persian Gulf. Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol further enlarged this definition to cater for the Asian regions whose territories extended to India.
Prior to the Second World War, another term, the "Near East", denoted the eastern shores of the Mediterranean in addition to regions centered around Turkey. Middle East was used by the British while naming its command in Egypt in the late 1930s. It was after this usage that the term became widely used in the West. In 1946, the Middle East Institute began operating in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Geographic Location of Middle East
Geographically, the Middle East encompasses regions of North Africa and Western Asia. This area is extremely rich in terms of culture, history and religion. If a definition of Middle East is not expanded to a Greater Middle East, this geographical area counts 18 countries: Egypt, Iran, West Bank, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Iraq, the Gaza Strip (technically a territory), Cyprus, Turkey, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
In the first part of this article, capitals will be examined, while in the second part, the same pattern will be applied to countries.
This overview of the Middle East includes basic facts about both capitals and countries (such as the population, area, etc), ideal for basic fact searching for a research project, or to be used for its stats when revising for an exam.
What Makes Middle East?
As mentioned above, the countries of the region share several features in common. For example, the Middle East region has Arabs as the largest ethnic group. Iranian peoples and Turkic speaking peoples are the next two common ethnic groups. Islam is the largest religion in the region. In fact, the region is the birthplace of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. As expected, Arabic is the most spoken language here. Other popular languages include Persian, Kurdish, Hebrew, and Turkish
History Of The Region
The area now designated as the Middle East was known as the Near East in medieval times. It is reputed as the cradle of civilization as it was home to some of the most ancient human developments. Such civilizations include those of Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, Hittite, Greek, the Levant, Persia, and the Arabian Peninsula. Ancient Near East was governed by multiple empires starting with the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Achaemenid, Macedonian, Iranian, Roman, and Byzantine Empires. The Islamic Caliphate began their Arab conquest of the area in the 7th century. The Ottoman Empire, which had established control in the region, was defeated by the British after First World War. The French and the British divided power in the Middle East after carrying out their partition and thus defining some of the geographic boundaries still used today. By the late 1960s, nations of the Middle East had attained independence and were seeking an identity in the global landscape. The region has achieved economic significance due to the presence of oil reserves.
|Why was the Middle East Important to the British? |
The Middle Eastern region was particularly important to the British during this period in history as it served as a buffer region in the defence of British interests in India.
The terms made sense when they were first coined, and they helped to designate locations from a Eurocentric perspective.
The term 'Middle East' then evolved to become common verbal currency in 1902 when Alfred Thayer Mahan, a USA naval officer and historian, used the term in an article to describe the land between Arabia and India.
After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire as a result of WWI and other geopolitical events, the term ‘Middle East’ became established, widely used by people both within and outside the region.
Many argue, however, that since the term is Eurocentric and only valid from a Western perspective, that it should be replaced with a term that is more appropriate.
Jerwaharlal Nehru (the first Prime Minister in India), for example, argued that the term should be replaced with ‘West Asia’. His suggestion continues to receive a great deal of support and many academics.
"Middle East” is problematic because it is, undeniably, a Western term reflecting a Western perspective.
Ethnicity, Language, And Religion
The majority of the region’s population identify as Arabian, while the rest include Turkic, Arameans, Persians, Kurds, Berbers, Shabaks, Zazas, Assyrians, and Samaritans.
Numerous dialects of the Arabic Language are widely spoken in the Middle East. Literary Arabic serves as the official language in most states in the area. Other languages also spoken are Persian, Turkish, Hebrew, Kurdish, Armenian, Greek, and English. Some of the world’s major religions including Islam, Christianity, and Judaism have their roots in the Middle East. These religions have many adherents in the Middle East even in modern day. Other religions practiced in the area are Yazidism, Bahá'I Faith, Shabakism, and Mandaeism.
What are the safest countries in the Middle East?
Traveling in the Middle East is often lazily considered ‘dangerous’ by Western media and tourism. This is due to the situations found in Yemen, Afghanistan, and Iraq mostly. However, a lot of the middle east is safe to travel in.
Jordan and Oman, in particular, are both hugely safe. As is Israel, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Egypt, Lebanon, and the UAE.
Despite this, due to the staunch outdated religious beliefs of much of the region, travel for solo females, or members of the LGBTQ community is tough anywhere outside of the more developed Israel and Jordan.
What makes Bahrain safe?
The crime rate in Bahrain is relatively low, with violent crime being extremely rare. However, it is important to not let your guard down completely, as petty crimes like theft and burglary are more common.
Politically motivated demonstrations and protests are known to occur here, but they tend to be localized to specific areas and there is generally a visible security presence.
30 Interesting Facts about Middle East
To build awareness of Middle East history and culture, and to foster a more welcoming environment for ISU’s international students from the region, students in HIST 3354 Modern Middle East compiled a list of facts about the region, which was circulated around campus. The project received early coverage in the Idaho State Journal. Below are some of the facts they compiled. The project showcased student knowledge, but also showed how students used this knowledge to contribute to community-wide discussions about Middle Eastern students on campus.
* A variety of countries make up the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), including Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
* Widely spoken languages in the Middle East and North Africa include Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Berber, Kurdish, French, and English.
* The Middle East has been referred to as ?the crossroads of the world? because it connects the three continents of Asia, Africa, and Europe.
* The majority of Muslims do not live in the Middle East. More Muslims live in South Asia than in the Middle East and North Africa combined.
* The country with the world?s largest Muslim population is Indonesia, which is in South Asia, not the Middle East.
* Roughly 60% of the population in the Middle East is under 25 years old.
* The term “Arab” generally refers to people who speak Arabic as their first language.
* The majority of Arabs are Muslims, but the majority of Muslims are not Arabs.
* The words Islam and Muslim are derived from the Arabic word salam, which means peace.
* Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are the three largest monotheistic and Abrahamic religions in the world, each of which originates in the Middle East.
* The Islamic calendar is based on lunar cycles, unlike the Gregorian and other calendars that are based on the Earth?s rotation around the sun.
* The Arabic language uses the same punctuation marks as English, but some of them are inverted or reversed.
* Arabic is the most commonly spoken language in the Middle East. It is the official language of more than 20 countries and is spoken by approximately 300 million people worldwide.
* Sunni Muslims make up roughly 85% - 90% of the global Muslim population and 60% of the population in the Middle East.
* The global population of Muslims is approximately 1.6 billion people, roughly 23% of the world’s population.
* The term “mocha” is derived from the city of Mocha in Yemen, where coffee production was commercialized by the year 1400.
* In 1997, three men from Yemen tried to sue NASA for trespassing on Mars, claiming they had inherited it from their ancestors 3,000 years ago.
* Arabic is the world’s 5th most widely spoken language after Chinese, Spanish, English, and Hindi.
* Some of the world’s oldest civilizations were connected with parts of today’s Middle East. These include the Egyptian, Sumerian, Assyrian, and Babylonian civilizations.
* Three of the seven wonders of the ancient world are in the Middle East: the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, and the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
* Cairo, Egypt is the largest city in the Middle East with a population of roughly 16 million.
* The world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, is 2,717 feet tall and the second tallest building is the Royal Clock Tower Hotel in Mecca, which is 1,972 feet tall.
* The five pillars of Islam are prayer, pilgrimage to Mecca, the profession of faith, fasting, and almsgiving.
* The Prophet Muhammed had four daughters and three sons. Each of these children died before Muhammad, except Fatimah.
* There are no permanent rivers in Saudi Arabia, but the country does have permanently or intermittently dry riverbeds, which are called wadis.
* Ibn al-Haytham, the eleventh-century Middle Eastern scientist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher, wrote a seven-volume book on optics and is widely considered to be one of the world?s first theoretical physicists.
* Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, the eleventh-century Middle Eastern scholar, explained the lunar eclipse six centuries prior to Galileo.
* Ibn Bajjah, the twelfth-century Middle Eastern scholar, proposed an early version of Newton’s third law of motion, which states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
* Psychiatric hospitals were first constructed in Baghdad and Cairo in the 8th and 9th centuries CE.
* Tulips were cultivated by the Ottomans and exported to Europe in the early modern period, resulting in “tulip mania” in which tulip bulbs were bought and sold at exorbitant prices, especially in the Netherlands.
List Of Middle Eastern Countries
|Rank||Country, with flag||Area (km²)||Population||Density (per km²)||Capital||Nominal GDP (2012)||Per capita (2012)||Currency||Government||Official languages|
|1||Bahrain||760||1,641,170||2012.1||Manama||$30.355 billion||$26,368||Bahraini dinar||Absolute monarchy||Arabic|
|2||Cyprus||9,251||1,198,580||128.71||Nicosia||$22.995 billion||$26,377||Euro||Presidential republic||Greek, Turkish|
|3||Egypt||1,001,450||100,388,070||98.87||Cairo||$262.26 billion||$3,179||Egyptian pound||Presidential republic||Egyptian Arabic|
|4||Iran||1,648,195||82,913,910||50.22||Tehran||$548.59 billion||$7,207||Iranian rial||Islamic republic||Persian|
|5||Iraq||438,317||39,309,780||88.53||Baghdad||$216.04 billion||$6,410||Iraqi dinar||Parliamentary republic||Arabic, Kurdish|
|6||Israel||21,937||9,053,300||410.48||Jerusalem||$257.62 billion||$33,451||Israeli shekel||Parliamentary republic||Hebrew, Arabic|
|7||Jordan||89,342||10,101,690||112.14||Amman||$30.98 billion||$4,843||Jordanian dinar||Constitutional monarchy||Arabic|
|8||Kuwait||17,818||4,207,080||232.17||Kuwait City||$184.54 billion||$48,761||Kuwaiti dinar||Constitutional monarchy||Arabic|
|9||Lebanon||10,400||6,855,710||669.49||Beirut||$42.519 billion||$10,425||Lebanese pound||Parliamentary republic||Arabic|
|10||Oman||309,500||4,974,990||15.6||Muscat||$78.290 billion||$25,356||Omani rial||Absolute monarchy||Arabic|
|11||Palestine||6,020||4,685,310||759||Ramallah1||$6.6 billion||$1,600||Israeli shekel, Jordanian dinar||Semi-presidential republic||Arabic|
|12||Qatar||11,586||2,832,070||242.10||Doha||$192.40 billion||$104,756||Qatari riyal||Absolute monarchy||Arabic|
|13||Saudi Arabia||2,149,690||34,268,530||15.68||Riyadh||$733.95 billion||$25,139||Saudi riyal||Absolute monarchy||Arabic|
|14||Syria||187,437||17,070,130||92.07||Damascus||n/a||n/a||Syrian pound||Presidential republic||Arabic|
|15||Turkey||783,562||83,429,620||106.96||Ankara||$788.04 billion||$10,523||Turkish lira||Parliamentary republic||Turkish|
|16||United Arab Emirates||83,600||9,770,530||135.61||Abu Dhabi||$383.79 billion||$43,774||UAE dirham||Federal Absolute monarchy||Arabic|
|17||Yemen||527,968||29,161,920||53.98||Sana'a||$35.05 billion||$1,354||Yemeni rial||Presidential republic||Arabic|
The Arabian Peninsula is the world's largest peninsula, situated in Southwest Asia with the Red Sea in the southwest, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the west and the Arabian Sea in the southeast.
By political definition, the countries situated on the peninsula are Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Yemen. Saudi Arabia occupies most of the center. The island country of Bahrain is connected with Saudi Arabia by the King Fahd Causeway.
In the northern part of the peninsula is the Syrian Desert, which includes northeastern Jordan, southeastern Syria, and western Iraq.
To the northwest are Israel and the Palestinian territories along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
The Sinai Peninsula connects Asia with Africa, while the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus form a narrow separation from Europe. The Sinai Peninsula is the only part of Egypt's territory that lies in Asia.
Which Middle Eastern countries protect Christian minorities?
Lebanon has a ruling Christian majority, therefore they're obviously protected.
Hate speech against Christians was outlawed in Morroco, Syria, Jordan, and Tunisia, and they're allowed to practice all of the aspects of their religion freely. Morroco is even accused of advocating conversion to Christianity among Muslims, although the king is a Muslim. One incident I went through in Syria is relevant here; in Syria, hate speech is so outlawed that saying “Christians” without stating that they're your brothers is a risky move. One time I was in a mosque in Latakia, and the Imam was praising his Christian “brothers”, after the sermon, I went to him to praise his openness, he looked around nervously to make sure I'm the only one there, then he said that all Christians are dogs and that he praised them because officials from the government made him do it.
Iraq also tries to protect the Christians, but they're apparently failing miserably at it. Things were much more enforced in Saddam's era, but this government is a total failure.
Kuwait and UAE also protect the Christians from hate crimes and the churches there have been surrounded by police who'll frisk everyone who even passes by since the foundation of ISIS. But hate speech is practiced openly there. Still, their freedom is heavily restricted there and they're not allowed to practice outside of the church or sell symbols of their religion openly.
As far as I'm concerned Saudi Arabia is the only ME country with no Churches. Iran also targets non-Armenian Christians and Muslim Born Christians, but the Armenians have Churches and seats in the parliament.
All in all, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Iraq are the only countries where the Christians are in constant danger, along with Syria due to the revolution.
3 of the Most Beautiful Places In The Middle East
|Photo: J Travel|
Perhaps the first one on the list, Dubai is a vacation paradise. With timeless deserts and exquisite shopping malls, beaches and with the world’s tallest buildings, Dubai is a great place to have in your passport.
Situated in Jordan, Petra is a great destination for visitors looking for prehistoric times and ancient beauty. The peace surrounds throughout the city and definitely provides a lifetime experience with all the red colored rock carvings throughout the city and magnificent primeval structures. Petra, because of these reasons is declared as World heritage site by UNESCO
The capital city of Lebanon, Beirut has been subjected to war conditions but nevertheless , this city has gone past the worst and become one of the most visited places in the middle east. A small isthmus spreading from the Mediterranean Sea into hills, Beirut has defined fusion of both past and the present. The city is full of monuments dating back to the medieval period while after reviving, the city has also been blessed with beautiful beaches and high standing buildings and luxury hotels.
What are the countries of the Middle East?
- Area: 760 km2
- Population: 1,641,170
- Capital: Manama
Bahrain is an archipelago nation, located in the Persian Gulf between Saudi Arabia and the peninsula of Qatar. It covers an area of 760 km2 and has a population size of just over 1.64 million. Nearly half of Bahrain's population is foreign nationals. The 2011 Index of Economic Freedom designated the country as having the most independent economy in the Middle East. Before that, Bahrain was recognized for its banking and financial services sector, which are the fastest-growing in the world.
- Area: 9,251 km2
- Population: 1,198,580
- Capital: Nicosia
Cyprus is another island nation located in the Mediterranean Sea between Turkey and Egypt. The country covers an area of 9,251 km2 and has a population size of approximately 1.19 million. In 1961, Cyprus became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations after gaining its independence from Great Britain, and in 2004 it was accepted as a member of the European Union. Cyprus is a hub for foreign businesses due to its tax rates, which are below the European Union average. The country's economy relies on tourism, shipping services, and banking and financial services.
- Area: 1,010,40 km2
- Population: 100,388,070
- Capital: Cairo
Egypt located in the northeastern region of Africa, where it has borders along the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aqaba. Its territory also encompasses the Sinai Peninsula, which shares borders with Israel and Palestine. It is this peninsula that connects Egypt to the Middle East, making it a transcontinental country. Egypt covers a total area of 1,010,40 km2 and has a population size of over 100 million. Crude petroleum oil makes up nearly 25% of its exports. The rest of the economy relies on agriculture, tourism, and natural gas.
- Area: 1,648,195 km2
- Population: 82,913,910
- Capital: Tehran
Iran has coastlines along the Persian Gulf, the Caspian Sea, and the Gulf of Oman. It covers an area of 1,648,195 km2 and has a population size of approximately 83 million. Iran is home to the largest supply of natural gas in the world and the fourth-largest supply of oil reserves. The country is a member of both OPEC and the United Nations, as well as several other international organizations. The economy and gross domestic product (GDP) of Iran rely on the services sector.
- Area: 438,317 km2
- Population: 39,309,780
- Capital: Baghdad
Iraq is almost entirely landlocked, except for a 36-mile long area located along the Persian Gulf. The country covers an area of 438,317 km2 and has a total population of 39 million. Iraq's economy has an unemployment rate that averages between 18% and 30%, and a GDP per capita of only $4,000. The majority of employment opportunities (roughly 60%) are in the public sector. The oil industry of Iraq makes up about 95% of its foreign exchange revenue.
- Area: 20,770 km2
- Population: 9,053,300
- Capital: Jerusalem
Israel has coastlines along both the Red and the Mediterranean Seas and shares borders with several countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and the Gaza Strip. It covers an area of 20,770 km2 and has a population size of approximately 9 million. The majority of the population of Israel (around 74.7%) identify as Jewish. The country was created as a homeland for people of Jewish ethnicity and religion, and accordingly, it is often known as the Jewish State. Israel's economy is based on the technology and industrial sectors and is considered the most advanced in the Middle East.
- Area: 92,300 km2
- Population: 10,101,690
- Capital: Amman
Jordan is located between the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia, and has coastlines along both the Dead and Red Seas. It covers an area of 92,300 km2 and has a population size of over 10 million. The vast majority (92%) of the population identify as Sunni Muslims. The country is known as a safe haven for refugees in the area fleeing their homes due to terrorism and political instability. Jordan is considered one of the most politically stable countries in the Middle East.
- Area: 17,820 km2
- Population: 4,207,080
- Capital: Kuwait City
Kuwait is at the northernmost edge of the Persian Gulf, where it covers an area of17,820 km2. The population of this country is just over 4.2 million, and approximately 70% of these individuals are foreign nationals. This high percentage of foreigners is primarily due to Kuwait's petroleum industry, which attracts a number of foreign workers. At least 87% of the country's exports are petroleum-based. The sector makes up around 50% of Kuwait's GDP.
- Area: 10,400 km2
- Population: 6,855,710
- Capital: Beirut
Lebanon is one of the smallest, non-island countries in the Middle East, covering an area of 10,400 km2. It has a population size of just over 6.8 million, which is recognized for its diverse cultural and ethnic background. Lebanon's economy was able to resist the global economic crisis of 2008, managing to grow at a rate of 8.5% in 2008 and 9% in 2009. The services sector makes up the largest part of the country's economy and employs approximately 65% of the population.
- Area: 309,500 km2
- Population: 4,974,990
- Capital: Muscat
Oman is located along the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, giving it a long coastline along the Arabian Sea. The country covers an area of 309,500 km2 and has a population size of around 4.97 million. Its government is considered an absolute monarchy and all government responsibilities carried out by the Sultan, which a hereditary position. The economy of Oman depends on the oil and petroleum industry, particularly as its largest export contributor. However, the tourism industry in Oman is growing rapidly.
- Area: 6,020 km2
- Population: 4,685,310
- Capital: Ramallah1
Palestine shares borders with both Israel and Jordan and the country claims ownership of the Gaza Strip and West Bank regions. Palestine covers an area of 6,020 km2 and has a population size of 4.68 million. The nation has engaged in the decades-long conflict with Israel over Israeli-occupied lands, which were ruled by the Israeli Military Governorate from 1967 until 1982. The services industry in Palestine makes up 82% of the country's $10 Billion GDP.
- Area: 11,586 km2
- Population: 2,832,070
- Capital: Doha
Qatar is along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, where it covers an area of 11,586 km2. This country has a population size of over 2.83 million, 2.3 million of which are foreign nationals. This large percentage of foreign-born residents is due to the natural gas and oil industries, which draw a significant number of immigrant workers every year.
- Area: 2,149,690 km2
- Population: 34,268,530
- Capital: Riyadh
Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Middle East and covers an area of 2,149,690 km2. It has a population size of approximately 34 million, 90% of which identify as Arabs. The country's population had grown significantly since 1950, when it was only around 3 million, due to a faster-than-average birth rate. The majority of individuals in Saudi Arabia speak 1 of 3 Arabic dialects: Najdi, Hejazi, and Gulf.
- Area: 187,437 km2
- Population: 17,070,130
- Capital: Damascus
Syria is located in the western region of the Middle East and covers an area of 187,437 km2. The country's population is estimated at approximately 17 million, although that number may be inaccurate given the inability to perform an accurate census in recent years. The population represents a decrease over previous years, given a large number of people who have been killed or fled the country due to civil war, military violence, and political instability. At least 5 million individuals have sought refuge in other countries, while another 7.6 million are internally displaced.
*Area: 783,562 km2
Turkey is located between Europe and Asia and is considered a transcontinental country. It covers an area of 783,562 km2 and has a population size of around 83.4 million. Between 70% and 80% of this population identifies as ethnic Turks. Turkey is newly industrialized and has a GDP of $2.199 trillion, over half of which is generated by the services industry.
16.United Arab Emirates
- Area: 83,600 km2
- Population: 9,770,530
- Capital: Abu Dhabi
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is along the southeastern edge of the Arabian Peninsula. It covers an area of 83,600 km2 and has a population size of approximately 9.7 million. This country has one of the largest economies in the Middle East, with a GDP of around $377 billion. Like most economies in this region of the world, the UAE depends heavily on the oil industry.
- Area: 527,968 km2
- Population: 29,161,920
- Capital: Sana'a
Yemen is along the southwestern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, where it covers a total area of 527,968 km2. The country has a population size of over 29 million, nearly half of which is 15 years of age or younger. Because of these demographics, as well as various other factors, Yemen's population is expected to reach 60 million by 2050. The economy of Yemen, like many other middle eastern countries, focuses on the petroleum industry, which also makes up 73% of its exports
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